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NUTRITION 2

STUDY GUIDE 2: CARBOHYDRATE

 

Directions. Using your text Chapter 4, Page A, and Appendix H ), answer the following questions. The questions are to be copied followed by the answers. Be sure to put your name on your document. Your answers should be thoughtful, complete, and in Standard English. Credit will not be given for answers copied from online sources.

 

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2. Define the following

 

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)

 

A cid-base balance

 

A mylase

 

A rtificial sweeteners

 

C arbohydrates

 

C ondensation

 

D ental caries

 

D ental plaque

 

D iabetes

 

D ietary fibers

 

D isaccharides

 

E pinephrine

  

  

F ermentable

 

F ructose

 

G alactose

 

G lucagon

 

G luconeogenesis

 

Gl ucose

 

G lycemic index

 

G lycemic response

 

G lycogen

 

H ydrolysis

 

H ypoglycemia

 

I nsoluble fibers

 

I nsulin

 

K efir

 

K etone bodies

 

K etosis

 

L actase

 

L actose

 

L actase deficiency

 

L actose intolerance

 

M altase .

 

M altose

 

M onosaccharides

 

N onnutritive sweeteners

 

N utritive sweeteners – 2 –

 

  

  

P hytic acid

 

P olysaccharides

 

P rotein-sparing action

 

R esistant starches

 

S atiety

 

S ucrase

 

S ucrose

 

S oluble fibers

 

S tarches

 

S ugar alcohols

 

T ype 1 diabetes

 

T ype 2 diabetes

 

V iscous

 

3. Lactose intolerance and sensitivity appears to be a growing phenomenon in this country. Even though many people limit or avoid dairy products in their diets, they seem to still suffer from symptoms.

 

What would account for this fact?

 

What characteristics may predispose individuals to become lactose intolerant and/or sensitive?

 

c. What dietary options that would be feasible for individuals who are lactose intolerant/sensitive allow them to meet critical nutrient needs such as calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin D?

 

4. Nat Anderson . is a 48-year-old landscape architect who is concerned about his recent weight gain. He is 69 inches tall and weighs 202 pounds. His usual weight is 190 pounds. Mr. Anderson reports that — due to his busy schedule — he often skips breakfast or stops for a donut and coffee with sugar on his way to work in the morning. He frequently eats out with clients for lunch and eats dinner at home with his wife most evenings. His favorite nighttime snack is ice cream, but he has found that, as he has aged, the treat results in bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. He reports sometimes feeling tired and hungry during his work day, which he says  – 3 –

 

  

 is relieved by eating a candy bar or drinking a canned cola beverage. He reports no dietary restrictions, although he states he avoids products which contain high-fructose corn syrup and prefers to use products sweetened with sugar.

 

The symptoms Mr. Anderson reports in conjunction with eating ice cream are most consistent with which condition?

 

After Mr. Anderson eats a high sugar meal, what happens first to the excess glucose in his blood?

 

Mr. Anderson indicates he is interested in restricting his carbohydrates in order to lose weight. What is the minimum carbohydrate intake necessary to spare body protein and prevent ketosis?

 

Mr. Anderson notes that his mother was recently diagnosed with diabetes and wonders if that might be in his future. A review of his medical records indicates a recent fasting blood glucose test was consistent with prediabetes. What range is consistent with prediabetes?

 

If Mr. Anderson is typical, how much of the added sugar in his diet comes from sugar-sweetened beverages?

 

Mr. Anderson is loath to try nonnutritive sweeteners, but says he has recently heard about a sweetener that is derived from an herb. Which sweetener is he most li kely referring to ?

 

5. Tiffany C. is a 35 year old single woman who has been advised by her doctor to increase her intake of dietary fiber due to frequent constipation. Her intake over the past 24 hours is listed in the left column of the following chart:

 

FOOD

FIBER (g) Using Appendix H in text

DA+ CODE NUMBER OF FOOD IN APPENDIX H Breakfast

Orange sections, ½ cup

 

274 (p. H-16)

Apple Jacks cereal, 1 cup

 

1199 (p. H-12)

Poached egg, 1

 

101 (p. H-40)

Wheat bread, toasted, 1 slice

 

8671 (p. H-4)

Margarine, 1 Tbsp .

 

114 (p. H-52 )

Milk, whole, 3.3%

 

50 (p. H-36)

Coffee, brewed, 8 fl . oz .

 

731 (p. H-50)

Cream, light coffee, 1 Tbsp .

 

28 (p. H34) Lunch

Baked flounder fish, 3 oz.

 

25089 (p. H-40)

Rice, white, long grain, boiled, ½  

 

484 (p. H – 10) – 4 –

 

  

 cup   

Carrots, sliced, boiled, drained, ½ cup

 

602 (p. H-20)

Roll, dinner, plain, small (crescent), 1 ea.

 

8555 (p. H-8)

Margarine, 1 Tbsp.

 

114 (p. H52)

Coca Cola Classic, 12 oz.

 

12010 (p. H50) Dinner

Macaroni, enriched, cooked, 1 cup

 

440 (H-12)

Cheddar cheese, 1 oz.

 

888 (H-32)

Tomatoes, red, canned, stewed, ½ cup

 

1120 (p. H-26)

Snickers bar, 1 ea.

 

1782 (p. H54)

Coca Cola Classic, 12 oz.

 

12010 (p. H50) Snack

Peanuts, dry roasted, salted, ½ cup

 

2806 (p. H-28)

Beer, 12 fl. oz.

 

686 (p. H-48)

 

How much fiber was Tiffany C . consuming (complete and sum the middle chart columns above)? NOTE: you MUST use the 1 4 th edition of the textbook!

 

What is Tiffany C.’s daily recommendation ( AI ) for total fiber?

 

Tiffany C. takes h er doctor’s advice and , the next day, dramatically increases h er fiber to 45 grams on an average day. Sh e now begins to experience increased gas and flatulence from this change in h er routine. What changes would you suggest to Tiffany C. at this time?

 

6 . Discuss in detail the three different types of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides). In your discussion, explain how each type is chemically different from the others, and how these difference s relate to its activity and function.

 

7 . Victor and Michael are identical twins. They enjoy the same sports, games, and food. Victor, however, likes to chew sugar-free gum while Michael does not. During their last visit, their dentist found that Michael had two cavities while Victor did not. Michael asks you why Victor, who chews gum after eating, doesn’t have cavities and he does. How would you explain this to Michael?

 

8 . Can sugar-sweetened soft drinks be part of a healthy diet? Support your answer.

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9 . Discuss the root cause differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.